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Effects of Azadirachtin and Neem-based Formulations for the Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly and Root-knot Nematode
- Toxicity of the plant-derived natural pesticide azadirachtin and two types of commercial neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)-based formulations, Neema (liquid type) and Neema-plus (pellet type), were evaluated based on the mortality rate and developmental inhibition of the sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). In a laboratory assay, when B. tabaci adults were fed leaves containing 5 or 10 ppm of azadirachtin solutions, the rates of female oviposition, subsequent egg hatch, and adult eclosion were significantly reduced to 23.1, 53.2, and 26.6% of the control, respectively. At a tomato greenhouse, the rates of adult colonization, oviposition and egg hatch were reduced to 78.2, 47.0, and 71.2% by Neema foliar spray and 31.3, 34.1, and 66.8% by soil treatment with Neema-plus relative to the control, respectively. When isolated soil nematodes were exposed to various concentrations of azadirachtin, Neema, and Neema-plus, the immobility of juvenile nematodes showed no change at 2 h after treatment, whereas a reduction of 36.3% was observed at day 1 with 10 ppm of azadirachtin. Nevertheless, the effects of neem formulations were faster and much higher than those of azadirachtin. At a cucumber greenhouse, soil treatments with neem formulations significantly reduced the numbers of soil nematodes and plant root-knots; the reduction with Neema was 12.1 and 9.0%, and with Neema-plus 26.4 and 24.6% of the control, respectively. Furthermore, soil treatment with Neemaplus greatly improved the growth of cucumber plants in nematode-infested pots. These results showed that azadirachtin and neem-based formulations were highly effective on the developmental inhibition of both whiteflies and root-knot nematodes. Thus, soil application of the neem-based formulations would be applicable for the control of both leaf-sucking and soil pests.
Ohn Mar Lynn, J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem Woo-Geun Song, Jae-Kyoung Shim, Jang-Eok Kim, and Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
- J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem